Part C – Critical Synthesis about the role of the teacher librarian.

I enrolled in the ME.d. (TL) with limited ideas about what teacher librarianship involves. I knew I wanted to be engaged in literacy teaching in a new way — after ten years as a High School English teacher, it was time to renew my practice.

Before applying for the course I spoke to teacher librarians at the school where I work. There is a large team at the school as the student population is about 2200. They had some tasks in common, but each seemed to have something that they were particularly responsible for: author visits and events; the student literature club; learning technologies; databases and referencing; acquisitions; cataloguing; pathfinders and wikis; journal and periodical subscriptions; coordinating and rosters. What’s more, each one is ‘tagged’ to certain departments and student year levels. From these conversations I got a glimpse of the complexity of the role — and yet it was only a glimpse. Since then, I have learned a great deal about the different aspects of a teacher librarian’s professional repertoire. However, I am completing the ETL401 module aware that the knowledge I have gained is largely theoretical.

As I have journeyed through the ETL401 course I have deepened my understanding of the dimensions and possibilities of the teacher librarian role. I have grown more intrigued by the ways in which the role and the school library program are rapidly evolving in response to changes in technology. The transformation of my understanding has happened on several fronts: the instructional role of the TL; the place of learning technologies in a library program; the power of collaboration with teaching staff; and information literacy. I bring with me into MEd.TL studies a passion for literacy, and almost all my blog posts have been concerned with this topic in some way and what it means in the face of rapid change. I have been challenged to rethink what I mean by the term ‘literacy’ and arrive at a new synthesis for what it entails in the twenty first century. As a corollary to this, I have begun to view learning technologies more broadly now that I have begun to think about how they can be used to foster information literacy.

Early in my learning journal blog, in ETL401 Topic 2: Part 1: the Role of the Teacher Librarian, I discussed my insight into how little classroom teachers are aware of the instructional, information specialist and collaborative aspects of the teacher librarian role. Teacher librarians are an untapped resource. I identified obstacles to collaboration in my workplace setting – lack of understanding of the teacher librarian role; lack of shared planning time; and a view of the library and its offerings in terms of resources rather than in terms of learning and collaboration. In response to our readings of Haycock (2007) and Oberg (2006) I posted a comment on the Topic 2 Forum about the limited understanding among classroom staff of what teacher librarians have to offer. It was becoming clear to me, as I elaborated in a second forum posting on this topic, that a hidden aspect of the teacher librarian’s brief, is to promote and publicise the collaborative learning that the school library program can facilitate. This thinking has informed my resolve to be a teacher librarian who is able to communicate the collaborative aspects of my role to colleagues and to build working relationships across the library/classroom divide.

Further to this point, one of the things that struck me as I read Buffy Hamilton’s article, “What kind of teacher are you?”, and her blog posts on The Unquiet Library is that teacher librarians need to be proactive in seeking collaborative working relationships with classroom teachers. She has prompted my thinking and re-thinking about what is possible in a teacher librarianship role. She has inspired me to think about how I can integrate ICTs into the classroom in ways that engage students and support their learning. I have found myself exploring the software she writes about, and, although I struggle to make it work for me, I have a new purpose in educating myself about learning tools that could help my students. I have realised that technology has to be part of my professional ‘kit’ as a TL. Work such as Hamilton’s and that of Joyce Valenza in her video “What teacher librarians make” and her “Manifesto for 21st century school librarians” shows a vision of teacher librarianship that is vigorous and responsive to the new information landscape. They offer an idea of teacher librarianship that is far from the retiring and staid popular stereotype, but is engaged and involved in the learning community of the school. Reading is still at the forefront of what they do – but they integrate it with where students are using text, which is often online.

However, what is also clear is that in order to be able to create this kind of professional life, a teacher librarian needs administrators who are supportive of this renewed vision of the school library program. In my post on the forum for this topic, I discussed the need to target potential allies in the school executive, and get them excited about the prospects of an integrated application of technology, pedagogy and resources to improve student learning through the school library program. When students and administrators think information problems are solved by one large commercial search engine, teacher librarians have an enormous (but essential) task ahead of them making a case for what they offer. Reading Hartzell’s book Building influence for the school librarian (2003) was a valuable instruction manual on strategies to employ when advocating for the school library program. I noticed in my broader reading that an ongoing thread of librarian discussion is about evidence that qualified librarians increase student achievement and the necessity for restating this to decision-makers time and again. Moreover, the readings on Evidence Based Practice were salutary reminders that, as with classroom teachers, teacher librarians need to be able to document their impact on student learning.

Therefore, in my Reflection after Assignment 1, I examined how the subtext of so much of the course seemed to be that the teacher librarian’s role is surprisingly political. I had not thought of that before, but the theme touched on time and again was how teacher librarians have to promote their programs and the contribution they make to student achievement. It seems that libraries are constantly having to justify their existence. Later in the course I had a discussion with one the teacher librarians at my workplace that confirmed this suspicion. So I added “promoter”, “networker”, “marketer”, “evidence collector” and “strategic collaborator” to my list of attributes of the teacher librarian role.

Throughout the course I have been concerned with literacy and where it fits in this new ‘post-literate’ world. In ETL401 Topic 2: Part 1: the Role of the Teacher Librarian I noted that the qualifications required by the ALIA/ASLA to practice as a teacher librarian closely meshed with the Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. These qualities and standards revolve around the provision of both physical and “intellectual access” (Kuhlthau, 2004, p. xv). This means that for students to become information literate, they need more than just access to information – they need educators who can make it accessible, meaningful and part of the students’ learning. Ultimately, information literacy is not just about being able to recognise the need for information or even find it, but to be able to evaluate the credibility and relevance of sources, and apply new understandings. It involves skills in reading, comprehension and using technology – but it also needs to “transcend the format” (Bush). It requires the ability to synthesise information and create new ideas and outcomes from it. This came up in our study of the fascinating concept of transliteracy, and I blogged about these ideas in Reflections on definitions of information literacy part 1 and Musings on Transliteracy. Information literacy at its zenith is the creation of a personal mental construct of how we learn from information. Teacher librarians need to model this by becoming their own knowledge manager and a reflective practitioner.

Therefore, part of the role of the teacher librarian is to have a mental construct of what information literacy is to guide her practice. This definition will always be evolving as we encounter new information and technologies. However, the teacher librarian needs this to construct a sense of what outcomes she is working towards. Hence in a posting to the ETL401 forum, I offered a conclusion that information literacy was the theory and collaborative teaching and guided inquiry was the practice. Information literacy is a core, guiding construct for reflective practice.

Finally, my understanding of the teacher librarian role has been affected by current debates on whether or not school librarians should ‘leave the library’ and rebadge themselves in order to be effective. While concepts such as ‘the new model’ focussing on integrating learning technologies have some merit, in my view it risks abstracting just one strand of teacher librarian practice away from a holistic view of the profession. Rather, I see the teacher librarian as an “information activist” who extends her practice beyond the walls of the library, but who also fosters a sense of a special place for learning in the school. The discussion around the creation of “learning commons” has appealed to me and encapsulates a professional practice that is both situated and mobile. Most importantly, this idea of a learning commons with a qualified and collaborative teacher librarian at the helm provides opportunities for students to learn and to access information in context. Teaching librarians have an important role in facilitating access to literacy for people of diverse backgrounds and abilities – an important role for school and public library programs in fostering democracy.


Australian Library and Information Association/Australian School Library Association (ALIA/ASLA) (2004) Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians.

Retrieved from

Barak, Lauren. (2012). Full-time school librarians linked to higher student reading scores. School Library Journal, March 6. Retrieved from

Braun, L. (2012). Next year’s model? Digital Shift (School Library Journal). April. Retrieved from

Bush, G. Information transliteracy in the 21st century classroom. (Video). National Louis University. Retrieved from

Clark, I. (2010). We still need libraries in the digital age. The Guardian, 13 July.

Retrieved from

Hamilton, B. J. (2011). The school librarian as teacher: What kind of teacher are you? Knowledge Quest, 39(5), 34-40. Retrieved from

Hamilton, B. (n.d.) The Unquiet Library (blog).

Hartzell, G. (2003). Building influence for the school librarian: Tenets, targets, & tactics. (2nd ed.). Worthington, Ohio: Linworth Publishing.

Haycock, K. (2007). Collaboration: Critical success factors for student learning. School Libraries Worldwide, 13(1), 25 – 35. Retrieved from

Johnson, D. (2002). The seven most critical challenges facing our profession. Teacher Librarian, 29(5), 21. Retrieved from

Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information services. Westport, Connecticut, Libraries Unlimited.

Loertscher, D. (2008). Flip this library: School libraries need a revolution. School Library Journal, 54(11). Retrieved from

Miller, R. (2012). Undercover librarian: Tech coordinator Sarah Ludwig. School Library Journal, April. Retrieved from

Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13 – 18. Retrieved from

Todd, R. (2003). Irrefutable evidence: How to prove you boost student achievement. School Library Journal, 04/01/2003. Retrieved from

Transliteracy (n.d.). Retrieved from

Valenza, J. (2011). What librarians make. Or, why should I be more than a librarian? (video). Retrieved from

Valenza, J. (2010). Manifesto for 21st century school librarians. Voya. Retrieved from


Notes from a late formulator — thanks to Carol Kuhlthau

So, I am sitting here at the dining table, surrounded by the detritus of assignment writing. My son is being placated for 90 minutes with Pixar’s Cars. There are print-outs of academic journal articles on information literacy from here to next week. Post-It notes stick out at odd angles and my word-processor program is open to at least two documents as I try to marshall the quotes and key points and plan my approach.

The thing is this — I have discovered something about myself as a learner. Using Kuhlthau’s model of the Information Search Process (ISP) I can see that I am a ‘late formulator’. Kuhlthau noted that during research projects, students must arrive at a point where they have decided their focus — what they really think about the information they have encountered. I take a long time to reach this, it seems. I have read and read and read and taken copious notes.

On the plus side, I think I have actually come up with a clear idea of what I am taking away from this assignment writing process. Here are some the kernels I have synthesised thus far:

– That the chief value of information literacy is that it gives us a construct for how people learn from information.

– By using this construct, we can transfer knowledge about how we learn from situation to situation, hence developing higher levels of self-monitoring and self-evaluation and independent learning.

– That this central construct works as a theory for teacher-librarians. This theory informs our practice and all decisions made about collection management, pedagogy, collaboration, and engagement with the wider community.

– That information literacy is the theory; guided inquiry learning, with collaboration between the teacher librarian and the classroom teacher, is the practice.

– That, as a mental model of how we learn from information, it is something we inherently modify and update as we encounter new information and new technologies.

Thank-you Carol Kuhlthau!

Now, I just wish I had learned this about myself a little sooner…

Musings on Transliteracy

Image: Ocean Flynn,

Transliteracy …

One of the concepts that we have touched on in the information literacy topic is this new term, ‘transliteracy’. According to Sue Thomas:

“Transliteracy is the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks.


As a behavior, it is not new — indeed it reaches back to the very beginning of culture — but it has only been identified as a working concept since the Internet allowed humans to communicate in ways which seem to be entirely novel” (Thomas et al, 2009, 449). 


What has changed is not the activities – making connections, seeking information effectively, using information creatively and critically – these skills and attributes have not changed. However, what has changed is the amount of information at our disposal, the way in which is a stored and presented, and the ways we use and interact with it. Technology has changed the information landscape.

Transliteracy is a concept that allows us to discuss and analyse the learning needs of students who are growing up in this information environment. It is also a way of framing the pedagogies and approaches that educators need to develop to help students develop the skills and attributes implied in this model of information literacy.

Convergent technologies and Web 2.0 mean that students expect to be able to hop from one format to another and to contribute and ‘speak back’ to texts through their own creations.

The convergence of print, visual, sound and interactive media also means that students need the presence of mind to synthesise diverse information and perspectives and to critically evaluate sources. Once upon a time (as in, when I was a school student) the format demarcations were used as de facto demarcations between authoritative and relevant material suitable for a school research assignment. A an encyclopaedia or reference book was clearly favoured over more ephemeral material. Now, however, relevant, authoritative information sits alongside trivial, biased, and spurious material– on the web, in apparently the same format, in response to search queries typed into search engines. Students need more than ever to be taught to distinguish what they need and what they can filter out in this new information landscape. They can also be more creative in the way they interact with information.

Constructivist learning approaches and inquiry learning help educators meet the challenges of ‘emergent’ or ‘trans’ literacies by emphasising the student is at the centre of the learning process and must construct their own expertise on a topic.

According to Warlick, young people are “remixing content”, which means that they are “taking information raw materials and assembling them into something that is personally pleasing.” That is fine as far as it goes – but as educators, we want them to be able to be reflective about the content and to create meaningful as well as “pleasing” products. They need to develop their own mental constructs of their learning and a clear, reflective understanding of how they learn. These are essential skills for the 21st century.

However, the concepts I am coming across in the literature on information literacy and transliteracy are familiar to me from a different context – back when I was learning critical theory we read the work of a fellow called Mikhail Bakhtin. Bakhtin came up with a concept called “the dialogic”. He argued that all language was, in our current argot, a “remix”. Julia Kristeva, in turn, turned Bakhtin to account in critical and feminist poetics: “Every text take shape as a mosaic of citations, every text is the absorption and transformation of other texts” (Kristeva in Freedman, 1992, 82.) So there is a certain element of ‘old wine in new bottles’ here.

What is new is the range and breadth of media which students use and interact with as they conduct information tasks. On the Transliteracy wiki ( Dr Gail Bush from the National Louis University Library states that there is still the need to think critically about information, especially now that we have so much of it. The learning process has in some sense become ‘hyperlinked’ as access to information has disseminated and networked to such an astonishing degree. And yet learning and literacy still retain core skills such as the ability to verify the source, detect perspective and bias, and to change one’s mind in light of new information. The key quote for me from Dr Bush’s reflection is that literacy now “transcends the format”.

For the teacher librarian, this means that they need to be able to teach students to use “remixed” content ethically and with a focus on creating meaningful as well as “personally pleasing” products. It is not just about collecting bits of information or just about using technology. It is about making sense of the information. It is also about scaffolding students into creating a personalised approach to managing their own learning, which can use technology and social contacts to create a Personal Learning Network or a Personal Learning Environment. McElvaney and Berge define the PLE [Personal Learning Environment] as “the sum of websites and technologies that an individual makes use of to learn.” In other words, convergent technologies, by their nature, can help students organise and synthesise their learning on the path from information to knowledge.

The concept of transliteracy prompts teacher librarians to reflect that the model of literacy they have in mind will inform their practice. So a TL needs to have a model of literacy that responds to the students’ use of technology. However, this has to go beyond “the kids are digital, so you should be, too.” Teacher librarians need to collaborate with teachers to design learning experiences and intervene in student learning to move them towards constructing their knowledge in meaningful ways. No matter what the technology, students need to develop mental constructs of how they learn that can be carried from task to task and into future learning situations.



Bakhtin, M. (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (ed.). Austin and London: University Press Texas.

Freedman, Diane P. (1992). An Alchemy of Genres: Cross-Genre Writing by American Feminist Poet-Critics. Charlottesville and London: Virginia UP.

Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking meaning: a process approach to library and information services (2nd ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited.

McElvaney, J. and Berge, Z. (2009). Weaving a personal web: Using online technologies to create customized, connected, and dynamic learning environments. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 35 (2).

Thomas, S., Joseph, C., Laccetti, J., Mason, B., Perril, S., & Pullinger, K. (2009). Transliteracy as a Unifying Perspective. In S. Hatzipanagos, & S. Warburton (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Social Software and Developing Community Ontologies (pp. 448-465). Hershey, PA.

Transliteracy wiki:

Warlick, D. (2007). Literacy in the new information landscape. Library Media Connection. August/September, 20-21.

Reality Bites – wandering in the ‘exploration’ phase of the ISP

This phase of the research process for Assignment 2 sometimes feels like wandering through an unknown terrain, looking for answers … Using the ISP model, I would have to say that I am at the ‘Exploration’ stage, moving towards forming a clear ‘Focus’ or ‘Formulation’ of what I want to write. The information is a forest, a river, that I must navigate.

Source: Nicholas T:


Having been immersed in the reading on Information Literacy for some weeks now, I am feeling quite overwhelmed by the permutations of the professional debates among teacher librarians and information professionals about what information literacy actually is.


Just when I think I have a grasp of the concept, it slips away – or I read some other article and feel anew the vastness of the topic. I keep looking at the requirements for Assignment 2 for ETL401 and feel despair creeping up on me. Will I ever be able to master the information, synthesise the different points of view and factors to take into consideration? And will I be able to do that in time??


At least my reading of Kuhlthau’s work on the Information Search Process (ISP) has me prepared. She argues that in the ‘Exploration’ phase of a research project, it is quite normal to feel uncertain and overwhelmed by contradictory or complex information.


To make matters worse, since I have started my TL studies, I am actually in our school library less than in previous years. I am so busy as a classroom teacher in a big, results-orientated independent school that I scamper from one lesson to the next, stopping at my desk just to dump lesson materials for one class and pick up the equipment for the next. Time for reflection? Yeah, right. We are implementing a whole new curriculum at year 8 for English and we have so far this year been allocated a total of two hours team planning time – and half of that has been during lunchtimes. Time to talk to the librarians? Get real. And don’t ask me how my marking is going! As I am reading the material on collaboration between TLs and classroom teachers for Guided Inquiry the obstacles to implementing this method of teaching information literacy are glaringly obvious.


I am more than a topic behind now and use all my spare time reading and taking notes for the course – and yet it all feels theoretical, as I am removed from the rock-face of TL work.


My four-year-old son was recently interviewed by his kindergarten teacher about me for Mother’s Day. The teacher wrote his answers to the questions in a card which they gave to me on Thursday. One question was, “What is your Mum’s favourite thing to do?” His answer? “Going to work and marking.” (!!)


Fortunately, I was allotted an emergency lesson this week – in the library! I was introduced to borrowing and return procedures and because it was unusually quiet the TL on duty showed me her wonderful resources wiki and Refworks, which the school has just licensed. I really liked being treated as an apprentice TL. I then went upstairs to the reading room and helped an English department colleague with recommending wider reading titles to her Year 8s.


Last week, I had a conversation with one of our school’s TLs with whom I have had a bit of contact before. She books author visits and coordinates the journals collection, as well as helping with reading sessions in the library. I commented on the reading I was doing on guided inquiry and teacher-TL collaboration and how it seemed we did not really get to do that in our school. She sighed rather heavily and said that the school had recently over-ruled their managers’ recommendations. Their hours for planning and resourcing the curriculum have been cut and they have been given more time on the loans desk and on the floor. In other words, qualified TLs are being given more technical, clerical tasks and less time for what they specifically have to offer. It really brought home to me that even in a well-resourced school, the pressure is on librarians to argue for their ‘learning offer’ and to be properly supported in collaborating with teachers closely so they can have the greatest impact on student learning.

Reflections on definitions of information literacy – Part 1

Photo: Ewa Rozkosz:

It seems that information literacy has been all the rage in library studies for the past 20 or so years, and yet there seems to be only a little consensus as to what it actually entails.


Information Power: guidelines for school library media programs (ALA/AASL/AECT 1988) announces a focus on information literacy. This statement was designed, at the time, to respond to the burgeoning ICTs that were shaping up to make the impact on education that, since then, they most certainly have. In its mission statement AASL spells out an information literacy focus without actually naming it as such:


“The mission of the library media program is to ensure that students and staff are effective users of ideas and information”  (ALA/AASL/AECT 1988, 1)


This is a start. What does it mean to be an ‘effective user’ of information? And where do ‘ideas’ fit in here? And how about coming up with ideas, too? Teachers know that students sometimes struggle with this and that journey from information to knowledge to creative, new ideas and applications for knowledge is often long and arduous.


Every educator has had the experience of the student who seems unable to make decisions about how to use the information available. They are a bit like the person standing in front of the bursting-full wardrobe saying plaintively that they have, ‘Nothing to wear!’


Perhaps it is easier to think about what constitutes ineffective information use. Here are some of the symptoms I consider to signal problems with information literacy:


  • ignoring the need to find information;
  • not knowing where to start to find information;
  • lack of search-and-find skills;
  • not being able to sort out relevant and reliable information from the extraneous and/or spurious;
  • copying vast swathes of information verbatim, without the intervention of thought, or interpretation, or standards of ethical use;
  • a ‘cut-and-paste’ culture;
  • using only the top few hits of a search engine;
  • not thinking flexibly about the range of sources that might be helpful – print, electronic, non-text;
  • being unable to extract the main points or ideas from articles;
  • inability to summarise, précis, synthesise, or make connections;
  • being confounded by complex or contradictory information that demands sifting and careful interpretation.


Anyone who has taught students in an information-rich environment knows that it is no longer information scarcity that is the problem – but teaching students to use information nimbly, judiciously, ethically, critically and imaginatively.


More recently, the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) put out an updated Standards for the 21st Century Learner (2007). Interestingly, the document puts old-fashioned, linear reading at the top of their list of skills needed for the 21st century:


“Reading is a foundational skill for learning, personal growth, and enjoyment. The degree to which students can read and understand text in all formats (e.g., picture, video, print) and all contexts is a key indicator of success in school and in life. As a lifelong learning skill, reading goes beyond decoding and comprehension to interpretation and development of new understandings” (AASL, 2007).


I find this intriguing, because in the current climate of ‘media boosters’ and the changes wrought by fast-evolving ICTs, many are discussing old-style literacy as if it is a skill we can hop-scotch over as an unnecessary stage on the way to using digital texts. Information literacy begs the question of what we mean by literacy. The ALA seems to think that ‘understanding’ and ‘interpretation’ are still key – both cognitive activities that demand deep engagement with the material.


This goes beyond being able to decode letters into words. Taking a society-wide view, participation in higher education, which is the portal to professional life for most people, still depends on a certain fluency in ‘old-style’, bibliographic literacy, as well as new, digital literacies.


In an article, “Libraries for a post-literate society” (2010) library and information science academic Doug Johnson argues that we live in a ‘post-literate’ society wherein “multimedia technology has advanced to the point where literacy, the ability to read written words, is no longer necessary” (Johnson borrows from Wikipedia’s definition). He states that the ‘post-literate’ is someone who can read, but who chooses to “meet their primary information and recreational needs through audio, video, graphics and gaming.” In this way of life, traditional print is “relegated to brief personal messages, short informational needs, and other functional, highly pragmatic uses such as instructions, signage and time-management device entries”.


I am willing to admit that this is probably an accurate picture of how print and alphabetic text is used by a majority of young and not-so-young people – but the whole picture it provides gives me pause. Is this the sum total of what we really mean by ‘literacy’ and even ‘information literacy’? And is this what we want for everyone? There are still situations in which at least some of us need to be able to sustain attention while reading a longer piece of writing and the ability to construct a longer piece of writing or speech.


What about the use of language that is not purely ‘pragmatic’ – such as imaginative literature? The ‘post-literate’ world is one that most of us, to different degrees, inhabit – and yet, the older forms of literacy evolved to accomplish all those feats of scientific advancement, rational debate and inquiry, sustained reflection and knowledge management that gave rise to the Renaissance vision of the human and the liberal-democratic civilisation that it birthed.


Perhaps it is more useful to discuss “literacies” that encompass traditional reading, but also feed into the range of skills needed to use and interact with new media. Embedded in any discussion of literacy, too, is an assumption about what we mean by thinking and learning.


The purely pragmatic, short-burst texts described by Johnson may make up a large part of our use of written languages, but they are not the full extent of what we mean by learning, thinking and communicating – otherwise, we would hardly have need for the higher-order dimensions of reflection, debate, weighing up and evaluating evidence, constructing an argument, or drawing conclusions from evidence that still make up a large part of professional discourse. We hope they also comprise political and corporate decision-making. The vision of the human mind indicated by purely ‘post-literate’ and ‘pragmatic’ fare is of a data processing device – we are simply nodes in the information and communications network, blurting out signals and passing them on. This is “thinking as data processing” (Jackson, 2009, 83). What does the individual add to the data they ‘process’ – where is the human in all this?


By starting with a digression, I am trying to wend my way closer to inspecting the various definitions of ‘information literacy’ I have encountered in my reading for this part of my teacher librarianship studies. I have decided that the ‘post-literate’ sounds too facile – there is too little place for reflection, analysis, and the kinds of intellectual accomplishment that long-form reading and writing have evolved to support and express. While there is certainly a place for the kinds of ‘pragmatic’ literacy Johnson describes, a student who graduated from high school only able to engage in these kinds of interactions with texts would still be considered poorly equipped to deal with many of the demands of modern adult life. They don’t have to read War and Peace – but just reading tweets?


To return to the Standards for the 21st Century Learner, the document deconstructs information literacy under four main headings, each of which are then allocated about seventeen or so indicators under the headings “skills”, “dispositions in action”, “responsibilities”, and “self-assessment strategies”. The four headings are:


  1. Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge.
  2. Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge.
  3. Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society.
  4. Pursue personal and aesthetic growth.

Broadly speaking, these “skills, resources and tools” map closely along the lines of the information literacy definitions and models I have been studying for the past two weeks. They foreground what the learner is doing to find, gather, organise, interpret and present information. Verbs like “think critically” and “draw conclusions” show that this is an active process that demands higher-level thinking skills from the learner.


Linda Langford (1998) in her article “Information literacy: a clarification”, goes over the history of debate over the meaning of the term. Some working definitions she gathers together are:


“…the ideas and practices of developing in … students an independence in defining and solving their information problems.”


“the ability to access, evaluate, and use information from a variety of resources, to recognise when information is needed, and to know how to learn.”


“inherent in this concept is the attainment of skills, which relies on a process; that is, information literacy is an applied concept that takes on many approaches depending on what part of the curriculum is in focus.”


Some of these definitions highlight skills, others capacities, and others still the process. All imply a certain amount of self-awareness in the learner when identifying information needs, finding and evaluating information, and monitoring the research process. Hence, some of the information literacy debate is about processes that are hard to detect because they are thinking strategies used by the student and often done so intuitively.


Abilock (2004) offers a different interpretation of information literacy:


“Information literacy is a transformational process in which the learner needs to find, understand, evaluate, and use information in various forms to create for personal, social or global purposes.”


I am a little uncertain what ‘global purposes’ are, but I do like the idea that information literacy is a “transformational process”. Unlike purely functional or skills-based explanations of information literacy, Abilock’s definition looks at the alchemy that happens when thinking, and concentration, and creativity are applied to information – it becomes transformed from the dross of “information” into the gold of knowledge. This puts the student at the centre as an active, interpreting, thinking human being who is using critical judgement at every stage of the process. It also suggests that in the process something new is made.


James Herring (2007) takes a more process-oriented approach. He also describes information literacy in relation to what an information literate student is capable of doing, and in this he comes close to defining it as a mixture of skills, dispositions, capacities, and behaviours in a learning process. In another article, Herring (2011) defines information literacy as “a critical and reflective ability to exploit the current information environment, and to adapt to new information environments; and as a practice.”


Carol Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process (ISP) has caught my imagination the most of all. I think this is because she looks at the experience of being engaged in an information research task and the emotional dimensions of the process. By looking at the patterns of students’ feelings, she has mapped the ways in which we feel at the outset of the process, during the middle, and then how we move to a resolution. Her ISP also, to my mind, foregrounds the processes of revisiting questions and initial understandings the most, and the processes of thinking through an information process. Although none of the dominant information literacy models insist on a linear process, stating that their process is “iterative”, Kuhlthau gives the strongest permission to take a while to come up with an ‘answer’ and the keep revisiting and refining the initial understandings as information is encountered and interpreted.

The MEd. (teacher librarianship) lecturers have posed the question of how information literacy is more than a set of skills. Clearly it entails skills, but it also more than that: it encompasses a series of strategies, a process, an applied concept, and a practice. Overall, my sense is that the metacognitive dimension is key – that information literacy is a way of helping students develop a mental construct of how they learn and how this can be transposed to a range of learning situations. This is perhaps what distinguishes the more able, successful students from those who struggle. Herring’s research (2011) suggests that it is this aspect of the more able student – being able to think about what they are doing and how they can use a repertoire of information strategies to address an information problem, that makes them more apt at school-based tasks.

When I think of the people I know who have experienced success at school and then in adult, professional life, the aptitudes Herring, Kuhlthau and Eisenberg write about are there – making connections between apparently discrete learning tasks and situations; applying prior learning to new problems; knowing how to go about formulating a question or focus and sourcing the information they need; being resourceful and persisting in the face of difficulties; being able to interpret, understand and synthesise information; turning information into new products or ideas; tolerance for ambiguity and working through complexity; looking back and reflecting on the process and what has been learned.




Abilock, D. (2004). Information literacy: an overview of design, process and outcomes. Available at:


American Association of School Librarians; Association for Educational Communications and Technology; American Library Association (1988). Information power: guidelines for school library media programs. ALA/AECT: Chicago, IL.


American Association of School Librarians/American Library Association. (2007). Standards for the 21st century learner.


Herring, James. (2007). Progress in developing information literacy in a secondary school using the PLUS model. School Libraries in View, 23, 23 – 27.


Herring, James. (2011). Year seven students, concept mapping and the issues of transfer. School Libraries Worldwide. 17(1), 11-23.


Jackson, Maggie. (2009). Distracted: the erosion of attention and the coming dark age. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.


Johnson, Doug. (2010). Libraries for a post-literate society. Connections 72.  Schools Catalogue Information Service (SCIS)/Curriculum Corporation: Carlton South.


Kulhthau, C. (2012) The Information Search Process (ISP).


Langford, Linda. (1998). Information literacy: a clarification. First appeared in School Libraries Worldwide (4), 1, 59 – 72. Available from





Reflection after Assignment 1 – the role of the teacher librarian

Assignment 1 for ETL401 Teacher Librarianship was one of the more challenging things I have done recently. For starters, it has been more than ten years since I have undertaken any formal study, and, although my job involves constant learning and reading, it has been a while since I have peered at assignment requirements, criteria sheets and notes on readings as a student and not as an assessor. The experience was salutary! It has certainly made me rethink the way I am teaching one of my classes, which is full of students for whom understanding an assignment and the writing style required does not come naturally. Academic literacy is very hard to acquire and shifting to the register demanded in a specific discipline is more than half the battle to become apprenticed to it.


One of the messages I am getting from the reading is that the role of the teacher librarian can be surprisingly political. That is – principals and school administrators can be reluctant to fund and staff school libraries properly. The provision of lap-top computers to students and faculty has, in some people’s minds, solved the information problem for schools. Why have a library when you have Google? The fact that students’ use of search engines is often ineffective and at times dangerously naïve is known but glossed over by those desperate to plug a funding gap. So one of the impressions I got was that TLs need to be prepared to state their case – -persuasively and repeatedly.


Education is always expensive. It takes a lot of human attention and effort to bring young members of homo sapiens even to the point of being able to write a recount of a school excursion. In her marvellous book Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain, Maryanne Wolf points out that unlike spoken language, we are not born ‘wired’ to learn written language. Unlike speech, writing and written literacy is not inherited and passed on automatically as part of the exchange between parent and child. Language acquisition is something we are predisposed to – but text literacy requires conscious and constant modelling, explicit teaching and ever-greater degrees of practice to attain fluency. All it takes, Wolf points out, is one generation to not have this heritage passed on to them, and it begins to die.


The Australian House of Representatives Inquiry into School Libraries (2011) included data that indicates that Australia is one of only 5 OECD countries where literacy has declined in the past ten years. Almost half the adult population – 46% — were judged by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to lack the prose literacy skills necessary for functioning effectively in our society. When we are expecting students to graduate from secondary school with the ability to handle themselves and information competently, to make decisions, and to apply learning to new and unfamiliar situations, we are asking for quite a sophisticated set of capabilities. A search engine and a keyboard – in fact, any technology – no matter how amazing, cannot in and of itself make this happen, any more than giving a young person a car and a set of keys in and of itself enables them to drive. And yet, I was saddened to see that the subtext of a great deal of the reading was that school libraries and teacher librarians are seen as redundant because now we have the internet. Yet, if the advent of ICTs and the internet was the powerful driver of literacy that some claim, then we would have sky-rocketing literacy rates – not the obverse.


One of the revealing things about the reading I did for the assignment was how much professional judgement is involved. There are the Professional Standards for teacher librarians drawn up by ASLA/ALIA, which are there to help individuals make judgements about where they should prioritise their work. They can also be us by TLs to argue for structures in schools that support them to meet these standards. But it was also apparent that no one individual could fulfil all the roles expected of them to an excellent degree all of the time. A TL needs to be able to discern what in her professional repertoire is needed and how best she can make an impact. But this needs structures that enable that to happen.


As I wrote in an earlier post, one of the big ‘reveals’ for me as a classroom teacher doing the MEdTL course was the emphasis on partnerships with classroom teachers and curriculum specialists in the literature. The TLs at my school seem very busy largely with classic librarian tasks – and I wonder whether if I did approach one of their team to collaborate on a project, an inquiry learning unit for example, whether I would be only adding to an already significant workload. How much freedom do they have to exercise that judgement in an environment where teachers and TLs have no planning time in common? How does one make a case for these kinds of changes when everyone in the education sector seems to spend their whole lives running breathlessly from one task and deadline to another and staff time is the number one and most scarce resource?


I feel as if even at this early stage of my studies, that the complexity of the TL role could get overwhelming. On the other hand, it is potentially very exciting – if a case can be made for the kinds of changes implied by the professional literature and the material coming out of the U.S about ‘embedded librarians’.


So, first assignment done. The writing style required was the biggest challenge for me as I tried to adopt the tone and structure and vocabulary that facilitates ‘thinking like a librarian’. It is a slow process and far from my background in literary criticism and theory. It was like walking in borrowed shoes. Let’s hope I am learning how to break them in.

ETL401 Topic 2: Part 1: the Role of the Teacher Librarian

Initial reflections from a classroom English teacher on the role of TLs:

Doing the initial reading about professional standards and role statements for Teacher Librarians has been a mixture of the expected and the thought-provoking. It has also prompted some reflection about the role of information literacy in my existing role as a classroom teacher for High School English.

One of the things that has struck me about the reading for the MEd. (TL) so far is how, in my experience, little real conversation there seems to be between TLs and English teachers and how teachers really need to know more about what TLs have to offer. I mean, TLs regularly come to Department meetings to show us the resources they have made (and they are always excellent) but we classroom teachers don’t use the expertise of the school TLs as much as we should. Instead, we feel like we need to resource our curriculum on our own. There does not seem to be the time to sit down in teams with TLs and design courses together and create resources and information literacy tasks, as I have seen evidence of in the blog “The Unquiet Librarian.”

What’s more, because of the size and complexity of the school where I work, many of the roles deemed to be part of the TL’s remit in standards statements are actually divided up among a number of personnel, who each contributes in a defined way to the running of the school library. Many of the functions classified under ‘technologist’ or ‘media specialist’ to do with the use of learning technologies have been hived off to ‘Learning Technology Consultants’ who are classroom teachers without TL qualifications but skills and knowledge in ICTs and, of course, learning theory and classroom teaching.

This means that as I have been reading the role statements and professional standards documents, I have been thinking about how complex the TL role really is and how in many schools TLs will end up focussing on select parts of the role, depending on the needs of the school and the seniority of the person. In other, smaller, perhaps less well-resourced schools, the TL ends up having to do it all – especially if they are the only one.

Overall, however, I would have to admit that I think TLs in my school may actually be under-utilised by teaching staff who perhaps, like myself until I started this course, have a limited understanding of the potential for collaboration and support from the library staff.

One of the more exciting aspects of my initial reading has been the focus on information literacy. While I have not wholeheartedly agreed with the way some authors conceive of “information” and “literacy” (more on that later), it has shown me that we classroom teachers really need to think more carefully about the Information Literacy dimension when we are designing units of work. It is often implicit or a buried assumption in both the texts set and the learning activities and assessment we design – but I think we and the students would benefit from making the Information Literacy aspects of our work more explicit and drawing on TLs more to help design units that foster these skills and aptitudes.

Standards for Professional Excellence:

The ASLA Standards for Professional Excellence are a good starting point for thinking about the Teacher Librarian’s role.

One of the things that struck me is how the qualifications and skills drawn up in this document closely correlate to the actions required by a TL. Some standards address the need for skills in Information Management and promotion, some are focussed on teaching skills and knowledge of pedagogy and learning theory, and still others are concerned with using ICTs and emergent technologies and supporting Information Literacy. There is a notable emphasis on being active in promoting the profession and contributing to the professional discourse, which I think is linked to the ongoing need to make a case for the value of funding and staffing a decent school library in the face of funding shortages in education and the growth of information outside the library and school walls.

One of the unexpected and, in my opinion, problematic effects of the plethora of information now available, is that the ideas of expertise and the trained, critical ability to discern the value of information and how it should be applied in specific circumstances, is being obscured. We still expect our local GP to know more than just how to type symptoms into a medical database and give us a print-out of a diagnosis. Yet, in a lot of other domains, there is an illusion that if the information is there, then anyone can just access it and be an instant expert. The idea that not all information is born equal, and that we often need to interpret information carefully, falls into the background when we have so much of it.

I find my students are far more willing to rest their research for a topic on a cursory internet search and Wikipedia, than they are to use the authoritative and carefully screened information in Library-subscription databases, online archives and topic guides. I seem to be always working against the grain in arguing that just typing in a few words or a question into a search engine is highly inefficient and does not yield the depth and quality and focus that they need. My other concern is that increasingly students seem to think that meaning is ‘out there’ on the net, in information, rather than in what THEY do with the information: interpret, assess, synthesise, create, evaluate.

So it is clear to me that in drawing up Standards for Excellence and Qualifications, the ASLA are making a case for an explicit and carefully-planned teaching of Information Literacy in schools, and that there is a specific profession trained to help with this. When we have so much information available to us and each of us can publish on the web more or less instantly, we have a need more than ever for teachers who can teach students how to use this new information environment effectively.

Joyce Valenza has made her 2011 poster ‘What do TLs Teach?” available on Flickr under the Creative Commons terms of use:

I found this poster handy and it linked to the slightly different role TLs seem to take in US schools. The blog “The Unquiet Library” calls the School Library Media Specialist an “Embedded Librarian” and this seems an exciting direction in the role of the TL that emphasises collaboration and how teaching Information Literacy can infuse all aspects of teaching and learning across subject areas.


Some tensions …

I did detect some possible controversies for TLs working in some schools when reading across the ASLA Standards for Professional Excellence, the School Library Association of South Australia Teacher Librarian Role Statement, and the International Association of School Librarianship Statement on School Libraries. The same tension is evident in the joint statement by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions and UNESCO. This is that TLs must work within the brief of their school’s stated aims and values, whereas a part of their role is in fostering independent learning, information literacy and intellectual freedom. For some librarians, this will be a difficult task as the IFLA/UNESCO statement specifies that:


“Access to services and collections should be based on the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms, and should not be subject to any form of ideological, political or religious censorship, or commercial pressures.”

Schools that quite consciously seek to limit their students’ access to some points of view readily available in the wider community, such as the Evolutionary Theory of Natural Selection, or the fiction of J.K. Rowling in the Harry Potter series, put their TLs in a tricky position. Clearly, some TLs will have to include the ability to campaign for and promote the inclusion of some materials in the school library collection as a part of their role.

Some thoughts …

Reading the various statements and standards for the initial part of the TL course has highlighted for me the multiple and collaborative nature of the role. Although I kind of sensed this before (the TLs at my school are far from the books-only recluses of popular stereotype), it is interesting to see the various facets of being a TL labelled and described.

Some authors’ views:

Purcell in her 2010 article “All Librarians Do is Check Out Books, Right?” A Look at the roles of a school library media specialist” divides the TL’s role into several sub-roles:

  • Leader
  • Instructional Partner
  • Information Specialist
  • Teacher
  • Program Administrator

It seems to me that a TL might play any of these roles in the course of a single day, or they may specialise in one or two within a larger team of TLs. For most it would be a mixture, with the balance and blend being set by the needs of the school, their place in the library team and their seniority.

Overall, Purcell’s vision denotes the TL as a kind of connective tissue between school administrators, students, teachers and parents in deciding what resources to acquire, how they can be promoted and used, and how they integrate with the curriculum and the goals of the school.

Lamb and Johnson in their 2008 article “School Library Media Specialist 2.0: a dynamic collaborator, teacher and technologist” also highlights the TL as a person with connections to many stakeholders. Their TL role is divided into three parts:

  • Collaborator
  • Teacher Leader
  • Technologist

For myself, it seems that collaboration is implied within all the functions that a TL performs – -whether or not they are working with collection management, subject teachers, students, or administrators.

Lamb and Johnson, as indicated by their title, place more emphasis on TLs as facilitators of technology in the teaching-learning process.

Herring, in his chapter (2007) “Teacher Librarians and the School Library” sums up the joint nature of the role, “It is an educational as opposed to an administrative role.” The focus throughout this chapter is that a TLs raison d’etre is student learning.

My thinking thus far …

Overall, my thinking thus far is that the TL is a kind of information activist. This is because they need to promote the library and themselves as sources of quality, authoritative, relevant information.

The qualifications needed in the TL role and the tasks they need to perform well are interlinked. To be able to offer library and media services relevant to teachers and students, the TL must be aware of curriculum, assessment, reporting, as well as current pedagogies and the realities of the classroom and the pressures classroom teachers are under.

I think it is apt that TLs are a part of the adoption of ‘convergent’ technologies in an education setting, as they themselves are at the point of convergence of many texts, resources, and people.


Herring, J. (2007). Teacher librarians and the school library. In S. Ferguson (Ed.) Libraries in the twenty-first century: charting new directions in information (27 – 42). Wagga Wagga, NSW: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.

Lamb, A and Johnson, L. (2008). School library media specialist 2.0: a dynamic collaborator, teacher, and technologist. Teacher Librarian, 36(2).

Purcell, M. (2010). All librarians do is check out books, right? A look at the roles of the school library media specialist. Library Media Connection 29(3), 30-33.

Learning the world of TL

This is my second blog, my first being a reading and review blog at

This blog is for my reflections, musings, questions and sharing as I study towards qualifiying as a teacher librarian. I am currently a secondary school English teacher and I am passionate about literature. I hope that training as (and then hopefully being employed as) a Teacher Librarian is rewarding.

code acts in education

learning through code/learning to code

A Deakin University Research Project

Nick Earls

author etc

Be/com/ing Academic

Exploring the emotional processes involved in both being and becoming academic

The Thesis Whisperer

Just like the horse whisperer - but with more pages

Michael McCarthy's Research

School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne

Digital Data & Society Consortium

Bringing together researchers interested in the social and cultural aspects of digital data

EduResearch Matters

A voice for Australian Educational Researchers

Welcome to Pedagogy & American Literary Studies

A resource for teaching American literature

Reid on Writing

- an occasional blog with a bookish inclination -

degrees of fiction

Mythopoetics, secondary English and early-career teaching

Melbourne Circle: stories from the suburbs

Ghostsigns. History. Psychogeography.

Everyday Literacies

English and literacy education

Sara Grounds

writer | student | future teacher | learning for transformation

Combatting Schooling Injustice: Comenius Dreaming

About schools: especially social justice, human rights and equity in education, peace building, gender, environment and food politics, and good education policy and process